The Babylonian (Chaldeans) captivity was very devastating for the children of Israel. Due to the disobedience of the Israelites, they were carried captive. (586 BC)
Jeremiah 25:9-11 King James Version (KJV)
9 Behold, I will send and take all the families of the north, saith the Lord, and Nebuchadrezzar the KING OF BABYLON, my servant, and will bring them against this land, and against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these nations round about, and will utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment, and an hissing, and perpetual desolations.
10 Moreover I will take from them the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the candle.
11 And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years.
1 Chronicles 9:1 King James Version (KJV)
9 So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies; and, behold, they were written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah, who were CARRIED AWAY TO BABYLON for their transgression.
Not only were the Israelites carried captive, the Temple of Jerusalem was burned down!! The nation of Edom helped in the destruction of the Temple:
2 Chronicles 36:18-20 King James Version (KJV)
18 And all the vessels of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king, and of his princes; all these he brought to Babylon.
19 And they BURNT the house of God, and brake down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the palaces thereof with fire, and destroyed all the goodly vessels thereof.
20 And them that had escaped from the sword CARRIED HE AWAY TO BABYLON; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia:
1 Esdras 4:43-45 King James Version (KJV)
43 Then said he unto the king, Remember thy vow, which thou hast vowed to build Jerusalem, in the day when thou camest to thy kingdom,
44 And to send away all the vessels that were taken away out of Jerusalem, which Cyrus set apart, when he vowed to destroy Babylon, and to send them again thither.
45 Thou also hast vowed to build up the temple, which the EDOMITES BURNED when Judea was made desolate by the Chaldees.